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The MQTT Edge: Enabling Industry 4.0 with Low-Latency, Reliable, and Robust Communication

MQTT is the linchpin of Industry 4.0, efficiently bridging IT and OT systems, promoting sustainability, ensuring data interoperability, and facilitating seamless information flow in smart manufacturing.


The world of manufacturing is undergoing a transformative revolution, often referred to as Industry 4.0. This revolution is driven by the integration of digital technologies, the Internet of Things (IoT), and automation. At the heart of this transformation lies the critical need for efficient and reliable communication between machines, devices, and systems.

The connected factory floor, essential for smart manufacturing, thrives on real-time data exchange, demanding utmost data quality and reliability. This is where MQTT (MQ Telemetry Transport) comes into play. MQTT's adaptability and versatility are the cornerstones of developing agile, efficient, and Industry 4.0-ready smart factories. In this blog, we delve into how MQTT protocol is pivotal in enabling seamless communication and data exchange for Industry 4.0. We'll discuss how MQTT contributes to the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and MQTT custom version for Industry called MQTT Sparkplug. Through real-world examples and insights, we'll show how MQTT makes smart manufacturing more efficient, breaks down data barriers, and promotes sustainability. See how MQTT bridges the gap between IT and OT systems, making it easier to create agile and efficient smart factories in the Industry 4.0 era.

What is MQTT?

MQTT, which stands for MQ Telemetry Transport, has a history that traces back to 1999 when it was developed by Andy Stanford-Clark of IBM and Arlen Nipper of Arcom. Originally designed for scenarios with limited network capabilities and a need for small code footprints, MQTT was created to be a lightweight protocol capable of efficiently transferring information between widely-distributed components. This inherent efficiency makes MQTT an ideal choice for automation systems and small IoT devices.

Lightweight and Efficient

While MQTT has been in existence for a while, its relevance has surged in recent years due to the explosion of Internet-connected devices and the rise of Software as a Service (SaaS) solutions. It's perfectly suited for the IoT world, where data needs to be stored and managed securely without burdening the devices themselves. In fact, well-known smartphone apps like Facebook Messenger rely on MQTT for data transmission. MQTT's selection in such high-profile applications underscores the need for small, fast, and efficient data transfer to conserve battery life and data usage.

How MQTT Transmits Data?

At its core, MQTT operates on a publish/subscribe (pub/sub) messaging model layered on top of the TCP/IP protocol. A broker acts as an intermediary, connecting clients subscribed to specific topics with clients publishing messages to those topics. This decoupling of publishers and subscribers allows multiple clients to subscribe to the same topic and consume the published data as per their application's requirements.

Instead of devices always staying connected, MQTT uses a middleman called a broker. Imagine it as sending letters: devices write letters (data) and drop them in mailboxes (topics). Other devices interested in specific topics can check those mailboxes.

This approach reduces data traffic because devices don't need to stay connected all the time. It's like sending one letter to many addresses. MQTT topics are organized like folders in a file system, and you can use special characters like '+' for one level or '#' for all levels, making it flexible.

There are three delivery assurance levels (QoS) in MQTT, ensuring messages arrive correctly. If there are network problems, MQTT can try sending messages again to make sure they reach their destination.

Also, MQTT has a unique feature called "last will and testament." It's like leaving instructions with the postal service on what to do if you suddenly can't receive letters. This ensures your data is handled correctly, even if there are unexpected disruptions in the network.

If you're interested in delving into the technical intricacies of MQTT, I invite you to explore my MQTT Insights Blog Post. You can find the link here:

MQTT for the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)

The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) plays a role in driving Industry 4.0 by connecting machines, sensors, robots, and devices to the internet and fostering interconnectivity. A cornerstone of modern smart factories is the Factory IIoT (Industrial Internet of Things) Message Bus, serving as the communication backbone that facilitates seamless data exchange among various factory systems, devices, and applications. This centralized infrastructure streamlines data integration and empowers real-time decision-making, a critical component in optimizing production processes and achieving higher automation levels.

MQTT's inherent lightweight and efficient characteristics position it as the ideal choice for the Factory IIoT Message Bus, particularly when dealing with resource-constrained devices. Beyond these advantages, MQTT boasts several other factors that further enhance its suitability like:

Flexibility in Data Types

MQTT provides flexibility in handling various data formats, supporting binary, JSON, XML, and more. This flexibility reduces the need for data conversion, saving valuable resources and simplifying data integration in complex industrial environments.

Support from Cloud-Based Platforms

The integration of MQTT with cloud-based platforms such as Amazon Web Services (AWS) and Microsoft Azure is a game-changer for IIoT. These platforms act as message brokers while also hosting and storing data generated by applications. This off-site data management can lead to cost savings and simplified maintenance for integrators and end-users.

Security in the Industrial IoT

Security is paramount in IIoT deployments, especially in industrial settings. While MQTT is renowned for its small code footprint and minimal packet size, it offers authentication and security features to ensure data integrity and authentication. However, the implementation of these features depends on the configuration of the message broker

MQTT Sparkplug: Custom MQTT for IIoT

In the ever-advancing landscape of Industry 4.0, where industries strive for improved productivity, quality, scalability, and sustainability, a key factor often overlooked is the harmony between Information Technology (IT) and Operational Technology (OT) systems. MQTT Sparkplug, built atop the MQTT protocol, is tailored specifically to address this.

What is MQTT Sparkplug?

MQTT Sparkplug, built atop the MQTT protocol, is tailored specifically for the IIoT. This open-source protocol inherits MQTT's strengths and offers additional features, making it ideal for industrial applications. Operating on a publish-subscribe model, MQTT Sparkplug facilitates real-time data communication, enabling rapid responses to production process changes. It employs a standardized binary message format, ensuring consistent and efficient data transmission between host systems and devices.

Bridging IT and OT

Industry 4.0 introduces advanced technologies like cloud computing, big data, and robotics, necessitating convergence between IT and OT systems. MQTT Sparkplug addresses this challenge by developing standardized communication channels and protocols that function across various devices and systems. It fosters the creation of a unified namespace that centralizes data management, simplifies monitoring and control, and enhances interoperability between IT and OT.

MQTT Sparkplug vs. OPC UA

MQTT Sparkplug and OPC UA are prominent IIoT communication protocols. MQTT Sparkplug, based on MQTT, excels in resource-constrained environments. In contrast, OPC UA is complex, suited for systems requiring high data throughput or complex interactions.

MQTT Sparkplug is a potent and efficient protocol that empowers the IIoT. Its efficient data transmission and support for device discovery and data modeling make it ideal for managing large-scale industrial networks. By leveraging MQTT Sparkplug, businesses can gain real-time insights, enhance operational efficiency, and innovate in their industrial processes.

IIoT MQTT Case Studies

MQTT has found a multitude of use cases across various industries:


  • BMW Car-Sharing Application: BMW relies on HiveMQ MQTT Platform for reliable connectivity in its car-sharing application. HiveMQ ensures that the vehicles in the fleet are connected and can communicate with each other and the central system, enabling efficient car-sharing services.

  • SAIC Volkswagen's IoV Platform: SAIC Volkswagen's Internet of Vehicles (IoV) platform leverages EMQ's MQTT broker to enable seamless communication between vehicles and the cloud, facilitating real-time data exchange.


  • Monitoring Matternet's Autonomous Drones: Matternet uses MQTT to establish reliable communication between drones and ground control systems, enabling real-time monitoring of drone operations.


  • Power Plant Monitoring at Celikler Holding: Celikler Holding implemented MQTT to monitor power plants effectively. MQTT facilitates the collection and transmission of telemetry data from power plants to a central system, enabling real-time monitoring and predictive maintenance.

Smart Home

  • IBM Telemetry Home Energy Monitoring and Control: IBM Telemetry uses MQTT to enable home energy monitoring and control systems. MQTT ensures efficient communication between smart home devices, allowing users to monitor and control energy consumption.

  • IBM Telemetry Home Patient Monitoring: MQTT is employed in home patient monitoring systems developed by IBM Telemetry. It enables seamless communication between medical devices and cloud-based systems, facilitating remote patient monitoring.

  • eFon Technology's Smart Home Security System: The eFon Technology's Smart Home security system relies on Bevywise MQTT Solution. This ensures secure and reliable communication between smart home devices, enhancing home security.

Oil & Gas

  • IoT Innovation in the Petrochemical Industry: EMQ's MQTT broker is used in the petrochemical industry to enable IoT innovation. It facilitates efficient data exchange between sensors, devices, and cloud-based systems, enhancing operational efficiency.

Consumer Products

  • Smart Kitchen Appliances by CASO Design: CASO Design leverages MQTT to develop smart kitchen appliances. MQTT enables seamless communication between appliances, allowing users to control and monitor kitchen devices effectively.


  • IoT Deployment on Germany's DB Railway System: The German DB Railway System deploys IoT solutions using MQTT. It enables efficient communication between trains, railway infrastructure, and central systems, facilitating real-time monitoring and predictive maintenance.

MQTT Integration for Smart Manufacturing

To fully understand MQTT's role in Industry 4.0, it's essential to consider the levels of integration required for smart manufacturing. Smart factories consist of different levels of automation, each with specific functions and responsibilities. MQTT facilitates seamless data flow between these levels, breaking down data silos and ensuring that information is shared efficiently.

Level 0 (Field Level):

This is where real-time action occurs, with sensors, machines, and signals operating in microseconds and milliseconds. MQTT facilitates seamless data transmission from these sensors to higher-level systems, ensuring that critical real-time information is efficiently delivered for immediate decision-making.

Level 1 (Control Level):

At this stage, programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are in charge, handling tasks within seconds to maintain production predictability. MQTT connects these controllers, enabling them to communicate effectively with other components, ensuring synchronization and rapid response to changes on the factory floor.

Level 2 (Monitoring and Supervision):

Here, supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems and human-machine interfaces (HMI) provide operators with a visual overview of factory activities. MQTT acts as the backbone for data exchange, ensuring that real-time information is reliably transmitted to these systems, allowing operators to monitor and supervise processes effectively.

Level 3 (Manufacturing Operations):

Manufacturing execution systems (MES) come into play, managing manufacturing operations measured in hours. MQTT's role here is to bridge the gap between real-time production data from the lower levels and the managerial aspects of production, enabling MES to optimize operations based on real-time insights.

Level 4 (Business and Logistics):

At the top of the pyramid, enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems handle long-term strategic planning, often involving processes calculated in days and months. MQTT facilitates the flow of data between the lower levels and ERP systems, ensuring that business and logistics decisions are informed by real-time data from the factory floor, enhancing efficiency and responsiveness across the entire manufacturing ecosystem

MQTT Architecture Patterns for Smart Factories

Modernizing smart factories requires careful consideration of the overall architecture. Various architectural patterns can be employed to ensure that MQTT plays a pivotal role in creating a connected and efficient manufacturing ecosystem.

Edge Computing

Edge computing involves processing data closer to the source—on the factory floor itself. MQTT is well-suited for edge computing because of its lightweight nature. By implementing MQTT brokers at the edge, factories can analyze and act upon data in real-time, reducing latency and enabling faster decision-making.

Fog Computing

Fog computing extends the principles of edge computing by introducing an additional layer of processing. Fog nodes, placed strategically within the factory, aggregate data from edge devices. MQTT brokers at the fog level can facilitate data normalization, filtering, and aggregation before sending it to higher-level systems.

Hybrid Cloud

Hybrid cloud architectures combine on-premises infrastructure with cloud-based services. MQTT's ability to seamlessly bridge on-premises equipment with cloud services makes it a valuable component of hybrid cloud solutions in smart factories. MQTT brokers can securely transmit data to the cloud, enabling advanced analytics and remote monitoring.


Microservices architectures involve breaking down monolithic applications into smaller, independent services. MQTT can connect these microservices, enabling them to communicate efficiently and share data. This modularity enhances flexibility and scalability in smart factory applications.

Unlocking Sustainability in Industry 4.0 with MQTT

Sustainability is a pressing concern in the modern world, and Industry 4.0 provides a unique opportunity to address sustainability challenges. MQTT plays a pivotal role in unlocking sustainability initiatives within smart manufacturing:

Data-Driven Sustainability

Sustainability initiatives rely on data to monitor and optimize resource usage, reduce waste, and minimize environmental impact. MQTT's efficient data communication ensures that real-time data from sensors and devices can be used to make informed decisions that promote sustainability.

Remote Monitoring and Predictive Maintenance

MQTT enables remote monitoring of equipment and processes, reducing the need for on-site inspections and maintenance. Predictive maintenance, made possible by MQTT's real-time data transmission, minimizes downtime and reduces energy consumption, contributing to sustainability goals.

Energy Efficiency

Efficient communication is essential for energy management in smart factories. MQTT's lightweight nature reduces energy consumption in IoT devices, ensuring that devices can operate longer on battery power or with lower energy requirements.

Reduced Resource Consumption

By optimizing production processes through real-time data analysis, smart factories can reduce resource consumption, including raw materials and energy. MQTT supports the rapid exchange of data needed to fine-tune processes for minimal resource waste.


In conclusion, MQTT stands as a fundamental protocol in the context of Industry 4.0. Its efficiency, scalability, and ability to bridge the gap between IT and OT systems make it a linchpin in modernizing smart manufacturing. MQTT's role extends beyond efficient communication; it underpins sustainability efforts, promotes data interoperability, and enables the seamless flow of information across all levels of a smart factory.

As the manufacturing landscape continues to evolve, MQTT will remain at the forefront, facilitating the creation of data-driven, intelligent production environments. Its versatility and adaptability make it a key technology for developing connected smart factories that are agile, efficient, and capable of meeting the demands of Industry 4.0. With MQTT as a central communication protocol, the future of manufacturing is poised for greater connectivity, efficiency, and sustainability.


1. "MQTT - The Leading Communication Protocol for Industry 4.0" - TipTeh.(

2. "MQTT Use Cases" - (

3. "Modernizing the Manufacturing Industry with MQTT" - HiveMQ. (

4. "A Data-Driven Approach to Sustainability in IIoT and Industry 4.0 with MQTT Sparkplug" - HiveMQ Blog.

5. "MQTT Sparkplug Blog Posts" - EMQX. [Link](

6. "The Benefits of Using MQTT to Warp Speed to Industry 4.0" - IoT For All Webinar.(

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